Open Science

Universality is a fundamental principle of science (the term “science” as used here includes the humanities): only results that can be discussed, challenged, and, where appropriate, tested and reproduced by others qualify as scientific. Science, as an institution of organised criticism, can therefore only function properly if research results are made openly available to the community so that they can be submitted to the test and scrutiny of other researchers. Furthermore, new research builds on established results from previous research. The chain, whereby new scientific discoveries are built on previously established results, can only work optimally if all research results are made openly available to the scientific community.

Plan S: Making full and immediate Open Access a reality

 

Open Access (OA) publication is essential in scholarly communication in a digital setting, and science related agencies are implementing policies that support the transition to new publishing models.

Research funders, including FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia) the main public agency supporting science, technology, and innovation, have made OA publication a requirement.

FCT’s policy is available since May 2014.

The core of the policy on open access to publications arising from FCT-funded research is that all publications of research outputs, subject to peer-review or another form of scientific review, should be deposited in one of the open access repositories hosted within RCAAP as soon as possible, preferably immediately on acceptance for publication. An embargo period is allowed, after which the full content of the publications should be made freely available, at no cost. The policy applies to papers in scientific journals, conference proceedings, posters, books and book chapters, monographs, Masters and PhD theses. FCT funding encompasses project grants, studentships and fellowships, career development contracts (FCT Investigator).

FCT Open Access Policy (PT)
FCT Open Access Polity (ENG)

 

To ensure scholarly publication supports our research impact and meets the opportunities and challenges presented by OA, the School is developing an OA policy that will be available soon.

Until then the School requires all researchers to ensure OA compliance of their scholarly publications by submitting their work into Pure with a full text version that complies with OA policy of the journal.

Open Access

Support for Open Access (OA) is available to all researchers at Nova School of Business and Economics. It is important to consider OA as early as possible in the research cycle, including as part of any funding application. If you need help when preparing your application, please contact the Library.

Understanding which route to OA and how to achieve compliance is each researcher’s responsibility. The procedures below explain what steps must be taken. You can also use FCT’s Open Access decision tree to help identify what steps to take.

Image source: Funding & tender opportunities. European Commission.

 

Support for OA

Responsibility for compliance

Researchers are responsible for compliance to any conditions of publication made by external funders.

Papers written by students, postgraduate students and postdoctoral staff

Papers written by students, postgraduate students and postdoctoral staff are usually co-authored by a member of Nova SBE staff, usually the supervisor, though this varies in some disciplines. For such papers, the supervisor is the person responsible for compliance. Where a paper is written solely by a student, postgraduate student or postdoctoral staff member it is the responsibility of the supervisor to alert the author of all conditions that apply to the publication, including upload to Pure and RUN.

Papers with co-authors at other Universities

Where papers are co-authored by researchers not employed by Nova SBE, the Nova SBE lead author must take responsibility for ensuring the paper is uploaded to Pure and, if required or seen as desirable, made available in an Open Access format requiring payment of an APC. It is the responsibility of the lead author to make their co-authors aware of the requirements of the institution. Where research receives external funding, it is usually the responsibility of the principal investigator to pay any costs associated with Open Access publication.

Green Open Access Publication in RUN – Universidade Nova de Lisboa’ Repository

Upon acceptance of any article the lead author must add the publication’s metadata and upload its own final accepted manuscript in Pure. The record and document will then be made available in Nova SBE research profiles, Nova Research Portal and RUN. This manuscript should be the version accepted by the publisher. The article should include corrections after peer review but should not have been copyedited or typeset by the publisher. The Pure team will advise on publishers’ policies toward Open Access and ensure any required embargoes are applied before files are made available in Pure and RUN.

Outputs financed by FCT

Any article accepted for publication that has been supported by a FCT grant should be deposited in one of the open access repositories hosted within RCAAP as soon as possible, preferably immediately on acceptance for publication. To comply with this policy all publications must also acknowledge the funder in the publication. This should be done by including the full name of the funder and the grant number, in the following format:

“This work was funded by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (Grant number)”.

RUN – Institutional repository

RUN is the repository of Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Depositing in RUN improves the online visibility of your research, making it easier for a global audience of researchers to discover and reference your work. RUN is also one of the open access repositories hosted within RCAAP allowing you to comply with FCT funding policies.

Pure

Pure is the central source of data about research outputs at Nova SBE, by depositing details of your work in Pure it informs other systems at the University, including RUN, about your activity without the need to duplicate information. Further information about depositing to Pure is available here.

Open Access Initiatives

Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002)– BOAI is a public statement of principles relating to open access to research literature and was released February 14, 2002 and is a result from a meeting held in Budapest by the Open Science Institute on December 2001 to promote open access. It opens with the following statement:

“An old tradition and a new technology have converged to make possible an unprecedented public good. The old tradition is the willingness of scientists and scholars to publish the fruits of their research in scholarly journals without payment, for the sake of inquiry and knowledge. The new technology is the internet. The public good they make possible is the world-wide electronic distribution of the peer-reviewed journal literature and completely free and unrestricted access to it by all scientists, scholars, teachers, students, and other curious minds. Removing access barriers to this literature will accelerate research, enrich education, share the learning of the rich with the poor and the poor with the rich, make this literature as useful as it can be, and lay the foundation for uniting humanity in a common intellectual conversation and quest for knowledge.” – Budapest Open Access Initiative

Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) – the statement was drafted in a meeting in 2003 at the headquarters of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in Chevy Chase, Maryland, and starts with a definition of Open Access Publication.

An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:

  1. “The author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.
  2. A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving (for the biomedical sciences, PubMed Central is such a repository).” – Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing

Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge (2003) – is an international statement on open access and access to knowledge. It was drafter at a conference on open access hosted in Berlin by the Max Planck Society in 2003.

The Berlin Declaration’s definition of an Open Access Contribution:

“Establishing open access as a worthwhile procedure ideally requires the active commitment of each and every individual producer of scientific knowledge and holder of cultural heritage. Open access contributions include original scientific research results, raw data and metadata, source materials, digital representations of pictorial and graphical materials and scholarly multimedia material.

Open access contributions must satisfy two conditions:

  1. The author(s) and right holder(s) of such contributions grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship (community standards, will continue to provide the mechanism for enforcement of proper attribution and responsible use of the published work, as they do now), as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.
  2. A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in an appropriate standard electronic format is deposited (and thus published) in at least one online repository using suitable technical standards (such as the Open Archive definitions) that is supported and maintained by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.” – Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge

Plan S (2018)– is the initiative of cOAlition S funders, a group that comprises national research funding organisations and charitable foundations together with the European Commission and the ERC. Plan S’s main principle is:

“With effect from 2021, all scholarly publications on the results from research funded by public or private grants provided by national, regional and international research councils and funding bodies, must be published in Open Access Journals, on Open Access Platforms, or made immediately available through Open Access Repositories without embargo.”

COAlition S advocates for:

  • Science open for all
  • Revision of the incentive and reward system of science, using the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA) as a starting point
  • Changes to the publishing system when “There is no valid reason to maintain any kind of subscription-based business model for scientific publishing”
  • Immediate open access with no embargo period
  • Initiatives that establish robust quality criteria for Open Access publishing, such as the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and the Directory of Open Access Books (DOAB).

Find more about COAlition S

FAQ

What is Open Access?

Open Access is free and unrestricted online access to publications: to read, download and re-use, subject to proper attribution. OA removes the pay wall barrier to all those who do not have access to institutional or personal journal subscriptions, making the access free to the user.

What is Green Open Access?

To achieve green Open Access, the author uploads their accepted manuscript to the web and makes this file available for download. This enables the author to publish in a traditional journal while making their research more open by providing an additional, free route for users to discover and read the article.

This is possible if the author deposits their accepted (peer reviewed) manuscript rather than the final, published version of the article. Institutional research repositories such as RUN facilitate green Open Access by giving researchers at the University a place to upload their research. Temporary embargoes may apply, where the publisher asks for access to be restricted for a fixed time after the date of publication. It is possible to apply these restrictions in RUN.

How do I deposit in RUN?

Pure is the central source of data about research outputs at Universidade Nova de Lisboa, so depositing details of your work in Pure informs other systems at the University, including RUN, about your activity without the need to duplicate information. Guidance on depositing to Pure is available here.

What is Gold Open Access?

This is a way of making the version of record, the article as it appears on a journal’s webpage, freely available from the point of publication. Some journals make all their content freely available, while others offer a hybrid publication model, making some articles freely available to any user and others only available to subscribers. As there are no subscription or access fees, the cost of publication may be met by the publisher, particularly in the case of journals published by Universities or learned societies, or by the author. This fee, which varies across journals, is known as an article processing charge (APC) and is usually paid by the author’s institution or research funder.

What if Hybrid OA

Hybrid open access journals contain a mix of open access articles and closed access articles. A publisher following this model is partially funded by subscriptions, and only provides open access for those individual articles for which the authors (or research sponsor) pay a publication fee (APC).

What is Diamond/Platinum OA?

Journals which publish open access without charging authors article processing charges are sometimes referred to as diamond or platinum OA. Since they do not charge either readers or authors directly, such publishers often require funding from external sources such as academic institutions, learned societies, philanthropists or government grants. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_access

What is Black OA?

“Illegal, or “black open access”, provides access to a large part of the pay‐walled article output which cannot be found in repositories”. The name was suggested by Björk in 2017 (Björk, B.‐C. (2017), Gold, green, and black open access. Learned Publishing, 30: 173-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/leap.1096)

What is FCT’s view on Open Access publishing?

“The payment of Article Processing Charges (APC’s) or other fees required by some publishers for publication in Open Access is an option of the researcher. Although this cost is considered eligible by FCT, APC payment is not a recommendation of FCT, since compliance with Open Access standards does not imply direct publishing in Open Access.” https://www.fct.pt/acessoaberto/index.phtml.en

Portugal and FCT’S position towards Plan S can be found here https://www.fct.pt/noticias/index.phtml.en?id=372&/2018/10/Posi%C3%A7%C3%A3o_de_Portugal_e_da_FCT_em_rela%C3%A7%C3%A3o_ao_Plano_S

What are the views of other funding bodies?

European Commission – The EC has a Mandate on Open Access to Publications. Article 29.2 of the Model Grant Agreement sets out detailed legal requirements on open access to scientific publications: under Horizon 2020, each beneficiary must ensure open access to all peer-reviewed scientific publications relating to its results. Since any further rights – such as the right to copy, distribute, search, link, crawl and mine – make publications more useful, beneficiaries should make every effort to provide as many of these options as possible. For additional information go here https://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/docs/h2020-funding-guide/cross-cutting-issues/open-access-data-management/open-access_en.htm

European Research Council (ERC) – Depending on the type of ERC grant and under what Work programme it was awarded, different rules related to Open Access and Research Data apply. These are explained at https://erc.europa.eu/managing-project/open-access

What about Open Access monographs?

Although the dominant type of scientific publication is the journal article, Grant beneficiaries are also strongly encouraged to provide open access to other types of scientific publications including: monographs, books, conference proceedings, grey literature (informally published written material not controlled by scientific publishers, e.g. reports).

What is a Creative Commons licence?

Research funders often stipulate the use of particular licences when research is published in an Open Access format. Creative Commons licences are operative only when applied to material where copyright exists and work alongside traditional copyright. A Creative Commons licence makes it clear to the public how they may read, use and share your research. For more information see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/

What is a ‘predatory’ publisher?

Journals classified as ‘predatory’ in their practices charge publication fees to authors without providing the editorial or publishing services expected of an academic publisher. In many cases, this means that manuscripts are not peer reviewed, articles appearing online may be plagiarised from other journals and listed members of editorial boards may not have any knowledge that their names are linked to the journal. Such journals commonly send spam email to potential authors, solicit submissions and request payment of Article Processing Charges (APCs). To help helps researchers identify trusted journals for their research we recommend the use of the “Think. Check. Submit” tool to help identify trusted journals.

Is the University a member of any discount scheme?

Yes. As a B-on subscriber the university can take advantage of a few discount schemes as long as the corresponding author is from Nova SBE. To know more go to https://www.b-on.pt/en/gold-open-access/ or ask the library team.