Chicago Style & Citation

The Chicago referencing style is recommended for workprojects at Nova SBE.

The Chicago B Author-Date Style is commonly used in the sciences and social sciences. In this style, sources are cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and year of publication. All citations correspond to entries in a reference list.

If you are compiling your references make sure to use a citation software that can help you manage, organize, and add in-text citations and bibliographies in a variety of citation styles.


General rules

  • If you include a direct quote (word-for-word), the in-text citation must include the page number/s where the quotation appeared. Page numbers are also required when paraphrasing specific information.

  • Use semicolons to separate multiple references within one parenthetical citation, e.g. (Cunha and Castro 2018; Smith and Jones 2016).

  • For different authors with the same surname, include their initials before the surname, e.g. (A. Smith 2017) and (D. Smith 2019).

  • The reference list is organised in alphabetical order by the author’s surname

  • Use full author names in the reference list, and invert only the first author’s name

  • Differentiate between works by the same author published in the same year by adding a, b, c, etc. 

  • Use n.d. (no date) in the place of the year, when no publication date is available, e.g. Castro (n.d.)