APA Style & Citation

APA – American Psychological Association style it’s a list of references that provides you an organized system for bibliographical references and citations. The guidelines follow the 6th and 7th edition Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

To create bibliographical references and citations under APA style you must consider these items:

  • Book

One author

Book: Kotler, P. (2009). Kotler on marketing. The Free Press.
Online: Kotler, P. (2009). Kotler on marketing. http//www.xxxxxxxx
eBook: Kotler, P. (2009). Kotler on marketing. https://doi.org/xxxxxxxx

In-text citation (Kotler, 2009)

Two authors

Provost, F., & Fawcett, T. (2013). Data science for business: what you need to know about data mining and data-analytic thinking. O’Reilley Media, Inc.

In-text citation (Provost & Fawcett, 2013)

Three to seven authors

Burgelman, R. A., Maidique, A. M., & Wheelwright, C. (1996). Strategic management of technology and innovation. Irwin

In-text citation (Burgelman, Maidique & Weelwirght, 1996) and next citations (Burgelman et al., 1996)

Eight or more authors

Describe the six first authors, an ellipsis “…” and the last author.

Lynch, E., McGovern, E., Breckons, R. C., Deluca, P., Drummond, C., … Kaner, E. (2019). Adolescent perspectives about their participation in alcohol intervention research in emergency care: A qualitative exploration using ethical principles as an analytical framework.

In-text citation (Lynch et al., 2019)

Editors authors

Lempka, R., & Stallard, P. D. (Eds.). (2013). Next generation finance: adapting the financial services industry to changes in technology, regulation and consumer behaviour. Harriman House LTD.

In-text citation (Lempka & Stallard, 2023)

Organization author

Nova Business School and Economics. Universidade Nova de Lisboa (2020).

In-text citation (Nova Business School and Economics [NSBE], 2020) next citations (NSBE, 2020)

  • Chapter or other part of a book

Tortajada, C. (2014). Water Resources: An Evolving Landscape. In Currie-Alder, B., Kanbur, R. Malone, D. M. & Medhora, R. (Eds.), International Development: Ideas, Experience, & Prospects (pp. 67–83). Oxford University Press.

In-text citation (Tortajada, 2015)

  • Journal article

Denis, D. J., & Osobov, I. (2008). Why do firms pay dividends? International evidence on the determinants of dividend policy. Journal of Financial Economics 89 (1), 62–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfineco.2007.06.006

In-text citation (Denis & Osobov, 2008)

  • Webpage

Press corner. (n.d.). Retrieved February 19, 2020, from https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_16_381

Fighting Tax Evasion: The European Union and the Principality of Monaco Initial New Tax

Transparency Agreement. (2016). Retrieved from http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-16-381_en.htm.

(European Commission [EU],2016) next citation (EU, 2016)



Page margin: one inch (2.54 cm) on both sides
Times New Roman font in 12 pt
References top title on the central
Running head on the top left corner
Page number on the top right corner
Double spacing within and between references
½ inch hanging indent for references longer than one line.


More information

At the Library:
Publication manual of the american psychological association / American Psychological Association.
Call number BF76.7 APA


Check here the difference between the 6th and the 7th new edition:

In-text citation: